Critical Thinking are examples that can be related to, from real life; to demonstrate relationships.
Critical Reasoning is the structure of logical expressions, and being able to detect fallacies in an expressed statement. Often Politicians deceive the public by using nice sounding phrases, that have no hope of supporting the truth.
US Politician Statement:
Russia is building its nuclear arsenal. The United States must keep pace by building its Nuclear Arsenal.
Sounds reasonable, right. But it’s missing very important information.
Based on just these few relationships, building additional nuclear weapons is NOT in the best interest of most Americans. The politician making this statement should be investigated for potential incompetence, treason, and having advisers linked to corruption.
If you are going to take the time to meet, listen; make assessments, and then do something to affect useful change.
The following is a link to most of our elected representatives. You can always come back here to contact them regarding any issue you evaluate in the future.
The following are tools for your students/employees to obtain practiced experience in expressing common sense
Under Construction – The following is a perspective that is partially developed. The flow of content, purposes, references, and other considerations have not as yet been significantly addressed.
The following is an incomplete set of thoughts I plan to revisit.
Given a problem, develop a list of functional descriptions that together define the environment that supports the problem. A problem can only survive, or be sustained, if there is an active system supporting it.
If there are standards that groups support, attempt to solve the related problem using ethical standards (technology, legal, common sense…). From the list define each functional description as a set of Functional Statements; break the bigger problem down into smaller manageable pieces. Intentionally look for gaps from not having the expertise to see the gaps; recruit team members to help.
Wherever reasonable, Do NOT reinvent the wheel. Follow established standards so others can more effectively help through mutual understanding of common standards. If you don’t know the standard, take the time to teach yourself that skill so you are a more effective member of the team.
Avoid using jargon, or language from standards in the functional statements so that resolution in understanding the problem is not covered up by keywords and impressive language (rhetoric). Attempt to use the jargon of the standards, when discussing actual solutions developed; this tends to lead broadly considered solutions towards standards, so that others can apply similar solutions.
Each Functional Statement has three parts: the structure perspectives where each perspective is a set of supporting relationships. A perspective is a system of “if” this, then “that”,
For each if/that relationship there is a likeliness to occur for each “IF”, and level of impact on “that”. Usually the same “IF” statement is connected to many “Then” outcomes. So what is being looked for is dominant desired outcomes.
This is easily developed in an Excel spreadsheet:
This is just an incomplete thought I intend to revisit.
Make sure the grade determining part is written simply and clearly, using the language from the standards themselves. Make sure that part is designated as “grade determining” in the Functional Statement. Make sure that it explicitly states that this part occupies at least 25% of the employee’s time.
4. Each Qualification Standard, at each grade level, has a set of required KSAs. There need to be explicitly documented for the board. Placing that documentation in the Functional Statement is recommended. Ensure that they are clearly labeled and described fully. Do not rely on the board to infer the presence of these KSAs.
5. Make the other parts of the Functional Statement as varied and as reflective of the array of complex assignments the employee is engaged in as possible. In the templates we created, we tried to give examples of other activities that ought to be included if relevant. The list is meant to be illustrative rather than inclusive. These parts of the Functional Statement are to reflect the rich and varied professional experience of each psychologist. The Functional Statements are meant to replace the old Position Descriptions.
6. Describing those activities completely is important for two reasons: first, the scope, significance, and impact of what one does can be grade determining. This is particularly true about the difference between the 14 and 15 grades. Second, sometimes an individual may demonstrate what HR classification experts have referred to as “the impact of the person on the position”; the person may have more impact than the position strictly warrants. In rare instances this might be grade determining, so that someone whose responsibilities are on the borderline of a higher grade may be promoted based on other factors. For example, a grade 14 manager in a relatively small hospital may demonstrate that their work has national significance and thus qualify for grade 15. For that reason, it is best that the other parts of the Functional Statement reflect all regional and national tasks.
7. In addition to the templates, which are more generic, we have included some examples of actual Functional Statements for the purpose of illustrating how these principles may be applied in concrete cases.
8. Note that managers and supervisors are NOT synonymous. Managers are responsible to manage programs and the activities of people in those programs; supervisors do performance appraisals for their supervisees. Being either a manager or a supervisor may qualify one for grade 14 or 15. If one performs both functions, it is important to describe each function completely and note the percentage of time devoted to each.
9. Please take note of the following statement in the Qualification Standards under the heading “Deviations”: “The appointing official may, under unusual circumstances, approve reasonable deviations to the grade determination requirements for psychologists in VHA whose composite record of accomplishments, performance, and qualifications, as well as current assignments, warrants such action based on demonstrated competence to meet the requirements of the proposed grade.” This is another compelling reason to have the functional statement reflect all of the psychologist’s national, regional and otherwise “complex and wide in scope” activities and accomplishments.
Step 1. Identify all the conclusions.
A conclusion is a statement or idea in a document or speech that the writer or speaker wants you to accept.
Step 2. Look for the reasons and evidence the author uses to support each conclusion.
There is an important distinction between reason and evidence.
Step 3. List all major assumptions
An assumption is a belief we use to support the evidence. Make a list of the assumptions in each piece of evidence. Look for hidden or unspoken assumptions.
For example ” An employee reported to his supervisor that his work team was not functioning well. He spoke generally about friction between members of the team. The supervisor stated that she would look into it. She noted that just prior to the complaint a new member had been added to the team. Her hidden assumption was that because the complaint and the new member’s arrival coincided, there must be a connection. She transferred the new member to a different team, and was surprised when the workgroup continued to have friction and communication problems”.
Step 4. Evaluate all the assumptions and evidence.
Our job is to evaluate each assumption to determine whether it is strong or weak, whether it is relevant and whether it is valid?
During the evaluation look for contradictions and for fallacies in the assumptions.
Step 5. Identify Fallacies in Logic
The following list gives eleven common fallacies in logic to look for when evaluating the assumptions used in supporting the evidence and the conclusions.
|Six Types of Socratic Questions||Examples of Critical Thinking Questions (CTQs)|
|1. Questions about the question or problem statment: The purpose of this question is to find out why the question was asked, who asked it and why the question or problem needs to be solved.||
|2. Questions for clarification: The purpose of this question is to find missing or unclear information in the problem statement question.||
|3. Questions that probe assumptions: The purpose of this question is to find out if there are any misleading or false assumptions.||
|4. Questions that probe reasons and evidence: The purpose of this question is to explore whether facts and observations support an assertion.||
|5. Questions about viewpoints and perspectives: The purpose of this question is to learn how things are viewed or judged and to consider things not only in a relative perspective, but also as a whole.||
|6. Questions that probe implications and consequences: The purpose of this question is to understand the inferences or deductions and the end result if the inferred action is carried out.||
|Types of Critical Thinking Actions||Examples of Critical Thinking Actions|
|1. Predicting: envisioning a plan and its consequences||“I envisioned the outcome would be…,”
“I was prepared for…”
|2. Analyzing: separating or breaking a whole into parts to discover their nature, function and relationships||“I studied it piece by piece”
“I sorted things out”
|3. Information seeking: searching for evidence, facts, or knowledge by identifying relevant sources||“I knew I needed to lookup/study…”
“I kept searching for data on ……”
|4. Applying Standards: judging according to established personal, professional, or social rules or criteria||“I judged that according to…”
“I compared this situation to what I knew to be the rule…”
|5. Discriminating recognizing differences and similarities among things or situations and distinguishing carefully as to category or rank.||“I grouped things together… ”
“I put things in categories…”
|6. Transforming Knowledge: changing or converting the condition, nature, form, or function of concepts among contexts.||“I improved on the basics by…”
“I wondered if that would fit the situation of …”
|7. Logical Reasoning: drawing inferences or conclusions that are supported by evidence||“I deduced from the information that…”
“My rationale for the conclusion was…”